This article will compare different electric car motors to determine which is best suited to electric car motor for electric vehicles (EVs).
People are becoming increasingly interested in electric vehicles(EVs). They don’t like budgeting for gas and are concerned about the environmental impact of fuel-reliant vehicles. Others embrace the idea that they can be early adopters of innovations.
They are at the forefront of technological advancements, so electric vehicles appeal to them.
The Broad Electric Car Motor Categories
Motors for electric cars: AC or DC?
There are two types of electric flow: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). As their names suggest, a direct current is an electric charge that flows only in one direction. Alternating current, on the other hand, reverses its direction periodically.
An electric vehicle can have motors that are powered by direct current. However, they only serve as mini motors for electric windows and windshield wipers, not to drive them. An alternative current motor is required to traction an electric vehicle.
Electric Vehicles use AC motors.
You’ll find two types of electric car motors associated with EVs. Let’s look at them.
Induction motors, also known as asynchronous motors, have electro-powered components called stators that generate rotating magnetic fields. The stator is the coiled wire inside the engine. It is made up of a shaft and a magnet. It generates an alternating voltage as the magnet turns.
The magnetic field created pulls the rotors, creating a magnetic field. This action creates the energy which turns the car’s wheels and gears. Engineers often choose these EV motors for vehicles driven at high speeds for long periods.
The synchronous motor’s rotor acts as an electromagnet, creating a magnetic field. Induction motors’ stator fields spin faster than the motor’s rotors, but synchronous motors have the same speed. The motor’s current frequency determines the overall speed.
People interested in electric vehicles for urban driving will often see synchronous motors. They are well-suited for frequent stopping and starting at slower speeds than someone might do during high traffic times.
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How Reliable is Electric Car Motor?
Electric vehicles are still relatively new. However, electric car motors are used in many industries that require the constant operation of machinery.
Many industrial electric motors have many parts which work together to provide functionality. Temperature, humidity, excessive dust, and other factors can all reduce the life expectancy of industrial electric motors. However, as a preventive measure, company leaders often test the components periodically.
EVs’ main moving parts are the armature. These are the parts that contain the coils. These warranties usually focus on driving time. Depending on which metric is used in your market, you might see warranties for miles or km.
Specific Types of Electric Car Motor
There are three main types of electric motors most commonly used in EVs. These are the brushless asynchronous motors (externally excited synchronous) and the brushless permanent magnet synchronous.
Although electric vehicles have been around for a while, technological advances and increased pollution concerns have given them a new status. Apart from Electric Vehicle Battery which replaces Internal Combustion engines, the core element of an EV is the Electric Vehicle Motor. Many electric motors can be used in Electric Vehicles, thanks to the rapid advancements in Power electronics control techniques. Electric motors should exhibit high starting torque, high power density, and high efficiency for automotive applications.
- DC Series Motor
- Brushless DC Motor
- Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, PMSM
- Three-phase AC Induction Motors
- Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM).
1. DC Series Electric Motor
The DC Series motor’s high starting torque makes it an ideal choice for traction applications. This motor was used for traction applications in the early 1900s. This motor has many advantages, including easy speed control and the ability to withstand sudden increases in load increase making it an excellent traction motor. DC series motors are difficult to maintain due to the high use of brushes and commutators. These motors are commonly used in Indian railways. This motor falls under the DC brush motors category.
2. Brushless DC Electric Motors
It’s similar to DC motors with Permanent Magnets. It is called brushless because it doesn’t have a commutator or brush arrangement. BLDC motors don’t require maintenance because the commutation happens electronically. These BLDC motors offer traction characteristics such as high starting torque and 95-98% efficiency. BLDC motors can be used in high power density designs. These BLDC motors are preferred for electric vehicle applications due to their traction characteristics.
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There are two types of BLDC motors:
- Out-runner type BLDC Motor:
This type has the stator inside and the rotor outside. This motor is also known as the HubHub motor because the wheel is directly connected to the external rotor. This motor does not require an external gear system. Some motors have built-in planetary gears. Because it doesn’t require any gear system, this motor makes the vehicle lighter. This motor also reduces the amount of space needed to mount it. The motor dimensions are limited, which affects the power output of the in-runner configuration. This motor is popular among electric bike manufacturers Tronx, Spero, and Hullikal. Two-wheeler manufacturers such as 22 Motors and NDS Eco Motors also use this motor.
- In-runner type BLDC Motor:
This type has the rotor and stator inside the motor instead of conventional motors. The motors require an external transmission system to transmit the power to the wheels. Because of this, the out-runner configuration is less bulky than the in-runner configuration. BLDC motors are used by many three-wheeler manufacturers, including Volta Automotive, Speedoo Vehicles, and Speedo Electric Motors. BLDC motors are also used by low- and medium-performance scooter manufacturers.
That is why it is the most popular motor for electric vehicle applications. Permanent magnets are expensive. Thermal conditions can reduce the life expectancy of permanent magnets.
3. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, PMSM
The motor is identical to BLDC motors, which have permanent magnets on their rotor. These motors have similar characteristics to BLDC motors, such as high power density and efficiency. PMSM and BLDC are that PMSM uses sinusoidal back EMF, whereas BLDC uses trapezoidal back. For higher power ratings, permanent magnet synchronous motors can be used. PMSM is the best choice for high-performance applications such as buses and cars. PMSM, despite its high price tag, is a strong competitor to induction motors because of its higher efficiency. These PMSM motors are also more expensive than BLDC motors. The majority of automotive manufacturers use PMSM engines for hybrid and electric vehicles.
4. Three-phase AC Induction Motors
Induction motors do not have high starting torques like DC series motors that operate at fixed voltages and frequencies. By using v/f or FOC control techniques, you can modify this characteristic. These control methods allow the motor to produce maximum torque at its start, useful for traction applications. Induction motors for squirrel cages are more durable and require less maintenance. Induction motors are capable of producing efficiency between 92-95%. An induction motor has disadvantages. It requires a complex inverter circuit, and motor control is difficult.
The magnets are responsible for this. Induction motors are easier to adjust than permanent magnet motors. The reason is that Induction motors can be adjusted using voltage and frequency (V/f) based on torque requirements. That reduces losses and improves efficiency.
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Tesla Model S provides the best example of Induction Motors’ superior performance to its counterparts. Tesla may have wanted to eliminate permanent magnet dependency by choosing induction motors. Even Mahindra Reva E2o uses an induction motor to propel it. Other major automotive manufacturers, such as TATA Motors, have also planned to use induction motors in their buses and cars. TVS motors, a two-wheeler manufacturer, will launch an electric scooter that uses an induction motor as its propulsion. Because of their low cost, induction motors are the best choice for performance-oriented electric vehicles. It can also withstand harsh environmental conditions. These advantages have led to the Indian railways replacing their DC motors with AC induction motors.
5. Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM).
Switched Reluctance Motors are a type of variable reluctance driver with double saliency. The Switched Reluctance Motors is robust and simple to construct. The SRM’s rotor is laminated steel and has no permanent magnets or windings. That reduces the inertia, which aids in high acceleration. SRM’s robustness makes it ideal for high-speed applications. SRM has a high power density, which is a requirement for Electric Vehicles. It is much easier to cool down the motor because the heat generated is confined mostly to the stator. The greatest drawback to the SRM is its complexity in controlling and increasing the switching circuit. There are also noise problems. SRM will be able to replace Induction and PMSM motors when it enters the commercial marketplace.
Electric car motor life expectancy
It is hard to predict the life expectancy of an electric car motor. There are so many variables that can affect the life of electric car motors lifespan. The optimal lifespan of an electric car motor is estimated to be between 15 and 20 years in ideal conditions. An electric car motor is less complicated to maintain than a combustion engine.
What is the output of an electric vehicle?
Power output refers to the difference in electricity input and “useful” motor energy. This ratio is known as energy conversion efficiency. It can lose some power due to friction and heat. The motor does not benefit from all the electricity from the electric car.
An electric car’s power output is dependent on its motor volume and the wattage of the current. ZOE generates 100 kW and has a torque of 245 Nm. New ZOE is particularly efficient in terms of energy efficiency, with a WLTP* range of 395 km thanks to its 52 kWh battery.
EV Motors is Part of a Bigger Picture
People don’t just think about the electric motors of the cars they consider when shopping for them. They are also concerned about the battery life, charging times, safety features, and driver assistance options.
This overview shows that electric engines are an essential part of electric cars today. Each motor has a unique function and is best suited to a specific use. Understanding how electric cars work is crucial if you are thinking of buying one soon or if you have any projects related to them.
Tips for Choosing the Right Motor for Your EV
It is important to identify the requirements for performance, operating conditions, and cost while choosing the right electric vehicle engines. BLDC hub motors are good for applications such as go-karts and two-wheelers. They offer less performance (mostly under 3 kW) and are affordable. BLDC motors can be used on three-wheelers or two-wheelers with or without an external drive system. PMSM and Induction motors are the best choices for high-power applications such as performance two-wheelers, cars, buses, trucks, and buses. The synchronous reluctance and switched motors can be made economically as Induction or PMSM motors. It will allow for more motor options for electric vehicle applications.
Electric Cars Tech hopes that this article will help readers get enough information regarding electric cars’ motors. We tried to guide you about motors used in electric vehicles. If you are thinking about shifting your vehicle to electric, it is important to know about electric vehicles and the technology used in EVs. Visit us regularly to get more and more information about electric vehicles. We tried to provide you with as much information so that you may be able to make a decision.