CHAdeMO, the trade name for a fast charging system for electric vehicles, was created in 2010 by the CHAdeMO Association as an EV charger. This association is made up of five Japanese automakers and Tokyo Electric Power Company. The abbreviation for “CHArge de MOve”, (which the organization translates into “charge to move”), is derived from the Japanese phrase ” o CHA deMO ikaga” which refers to the time it would take for a car to be charged.
It competes against the Combined Charging System(CCS), which is required for electric vehicles sold within the European Union since 2014. The proprietary connector that Tesla uses for its Supercharger network in Europe and China’s GB/T standard for charging are also included.
CHAdeMO continues to be popular EV charger in Japan through 2022. However, it is not being installed on many new cars sold in North America or Europe.
First-generation CHAdeMO EV charger connectors provide up to 62.5 kW @ 500 V, 125A direct power through a proprietary electrical connector. This adds about 120 kilometers (75 miles) of range in just half an hour. It is currently included in several international vehicle-charging standards.
The second generation specification permits 400 kW per 1 kV, 400 Am direct current. The CHAdeMO Association, China Electricity Council, and CEC are currently working together to develop the third-generation specification under the working name “ChaoJi”, which aims at delivering 900 kW.
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History of CHAdeMO EV Charger
CHAdeMO is a result of a charging system design by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. TEPCO was involved in many EV infrastructure trial projects from 2006 to 2009 with Nissan, Mitsubishi (now Subaru), Fuji Heavy Industries (now Subaru), as well as other manufacturers. TEPCO was able to develop a patented technology and a specification that would become the basis of the CHAdeMO.
Along with the launch of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, in 2009, the first commercial CHAdeMO-charging infrastructure was commissioned.
TEPCO created the CHAdeMO Association together with Toyota, Mitsubishi, Subaru, and other partners in March 2010. Hitachi, Honda, and Panasonic joined them later. CHAdeMO was the first organization to develop a common DC fast charger system that can be shared between EVs of different brands.
CHAdeMO was published as an international standard in 2014 by the International Electrotechnical Commission. IEC 61851-23 was adopted to charge the system, IEC 60521-24 for communication, and IEC 62196-3 configuration AA the connector. In 2014, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization added CHAdeMO to their published standards. This was followed in 2016 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
In 2013, the European Commission declared the Combined Charging System Combo 2 the required plug for DC-high-power charging in Europe. This was a significant setback in the international adoption of CHAdeMO. The European Parliament had considered removing all CHAdeMO infrastructure before January 2019, but the final mandate only required all chargers that were publicly available in the EU to be equipped with CCS Combo 2 so stations could offer multiple connector types.
CHAdeMO was the first fast charging standard to be widely adopted and is still used on many vehicles in Japan. However, it has been losing market share elsewhere. Honda was the first CHAdeMO Association member to cease equipping the connector for vehicles sold outside Japan, beginning with the Clarity Electric in 2016. Nissan also discontinued CHAdeMO on the Ariya SUV it introduced in 2021. Subaru and Toyota also have their jointly developed bZ4X/Solterra equipped with the CCS connector. The only two plug-in vehicles that are available in North America with CHAdeMO as of June 2022 are the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV and Nissan Leaf.
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Connector design of CHAdeMO EV Charger
DC fast charge
The majority of electric vehicles (EVs) come with an onboard charger. This converts alternating (AC) from the electrical grid into direct current (DC), suitable for charging the battery pack. Most EVs require limited AC input power. They are typically based on the power available from consumer outlets. Higher limits for AC chargers have been specified. For example, SAE J1772-2009 allows for 240V and 80A while VDE-AR-E2623-2-2 supports a 3Ph of 400V and 63A. However, these charger types are seldom used.
The power of the rectifier is limited by cost and thermal factors. It should therefore not be used for more than 240 V AC or 75 A. An external charger station can supply DC directly to your battery. You can install dedicated DC chargers in permanent locations that are connected to high-current grid connections for faster charging. These chargers are high voltage and fast charging, also known as DC fast charging (DCFC), or DCQC.
History of the connector protocols
The charging system design for CHAdeMO was based on TEPCOs 2006 trials. However, the connector was originally designed in 1993 by JARI and specified in the 1993 Japan Electric Vehicle Standard G105-1993.
This connector is capable of carrying power as well as making a data connection via the CAN bus protocol. This functions as a safety interrupter to prevent the connector from being over-energized (similar to SAE J1772), transmitting the battery parameters to the charging station such as target voltage, maximum battery percentage, total battery capacity, and how to vary the output current during charging.
CHAdeMO 0.9 was issued as the first protocol. This protocol offered maximum charging power up to 62.5 kW (125 A x500 V DC). The Version 1.0 was issued in 2012 to improve vehicle safety, compatibility and reliability. Version 1.1 (2015) permitted the current to dynamically alter during charging. Version 2.0 (2017) increased maximum power by 200 kW (400Ax500 V DC).
CHAdeMO 2.0 published the protocol for 400 kW (400A x 1 kV ‘ultra-fast’ charging in May 2018. CHAdeMO2.0 allowed the standard’s ability to compete with CCS ‘ultrafast’ stations that are being built in new networks, such as the IONITY Charging Consortium.
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2014 was the year that CHAdeMO published its protocol for vehicle-to-grid (V2G), integration. This protocol includes applications for vehicle load (V2L), or vehicle home-off-grid (V2H), collectively known as V2X. The technology allows EV owners the ability to use their vehicles as energy storage devices. This can help lower energy costs and optimize energy usage at the current time. Numerous V2X projects that utilize the CHAdeMO protocol, have been shown worldwide since 2012. Some of the most recent projects include UCSD INVENT (USA) and Sciurus (UK), which are both supported by Innovate UK.
CHAdeMO 3.0 ChaoJi
CHAdeMO Association, China Electricity Council (CEC,) and CHAdeMO were announced as co-developers of the next-generation ultra-high-power protocol. The protocol was named CHAdeMO3.0. This would bring the CHAdeMO standards into line with the CEC GB/T charge standard 20234.3.2015. The Association revealed that the project included a new connector called ChaoJi. This will increase the charging rate to 900 kW (660 A x 1.5 kV) and ensure backward compatibility (IEC 62916-3 BB) with current CHAdeMO (GB/T 20234.3) chargers. Chao Ji is also compatible with CCS. This study is ongoing as of summer 2019. Chao Ji connector may also replace the DC connector from CCS Combo 2
The ChaoJi connector, which incorporates liquid cooling and moves the locking mechanism from connector to vehicle, is considerably lighter than the CHAdeMO version. IEC68151-1 forbids adapters to high-power charging. The ChaoJi alliance proposed an amendment that would allow the use. Fujikura built a prototype adapter. It was nearly 3.5kg (7.7 lb) heavy because it did not have internal cooling.
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Deployment of CHAdeMO EV Charger
TEPCO Japan’s initial installation of CHAdeMO fast charging stations was overwhelming. It required the creation of a new power distribution network to supply them.
Since then, CHAdeMO has grown its geographic reach. The CHAdeMO Association announced that in January 2022 there were 44.900 CHAdeMO charges installed in 96 different countries. These included 7,700 charging points in Japan, 22,500 stations in Europe, 8,000 North American chargers, and 1,000 elsewhere.
50 companies produced 260 certified CHAdeMO chargers as of January 20, 2022.
When we talk about electric cars, EV chargers and fast charging come into mind. In EV chargers ChadeMo charger is the prominent charger. In this section, we tried to provide information about CHAdeMo EV Charger.